On the Hunt to Flush Out HIV
Source: Stanford University
HIV Research: Beyond the Vaccine
Source:  KQED / Quest
Modifying Nature's Compounds to Benefit Mankind
Source: Stanford University

Publications

Recent Publications:

  • Paul A. Wender, Clayton T. Hardman, Stephen Ho, Matthew S. Jeffreys, Jana K. Maclaren, Ryan V. Quiroz, Steven M. Ryckbosch, Akira J. Shimizu, Jack L. Sloane JL, Matthew C. Stevens. Scalable synthesis of bryostatin 1 and analogs, adjuvant leads against latent HIV. Science. 2017 Oct 13;358(6360):218-223. doi: 10.1126/science.aan7969

 

  • Matthew D. Marsden, Brian A. Loy, Xiaomeng Wu, Christina M. Ramirez, Adam J. Schrier, Danielle Murray, Akira Shimizu, Steven M. Ryckbosch, Katherine E. Near, Tae-Wook Chun, Paul A. Wender, Jerome A. Zack. In vivo activation of latent HIV with a synthetic bryostatin analog effects both latent cell “kick” and “kill” in strategy for virus eradication. PLoS Pathog. 2017 Sep 21;13(9):e1006575. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006575. eCollection 2017 Sep.

 

 

Wender Group (Stanford University): Representative Publications on LRAs, PKC and therapeutic indications (05302017)

  1. Matthew D. Marsden, Brian A. Loy, Xiaomeng Wu, Christina M. Ramirez, Adam J. Schrier, Sara Mottahedan, Danielle Murray, Tae-Wook Chun, Paul A. Wender*, Jerome A. Zack* Synthetic bryostatin analogs exhibit superior induction of latent HIV expression and in vivo bioactivity and tolerability” 2017 in review
  2. Colin J. McKinlay, Jessica R. Vargas, Timothy R. Blake, Jonathan W. Hardy, Masamitsu Kanada, Christopher H. Contag, Paul A. Wender*, and Robert M. Waymouth* “Charge-altering releasable transporters (CARTs) for the delivery and release of messenger RNA in living animals” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2017 E448-456, doi/10.1073/pnas.1614193114.
  3. Nancy L. Benner†,‡, Xiao-Yu Zang†,‡, Daniel C. Buehler†, Valerie A. Kickhoefer§, Michael E. Rome§, Leonard H. Rome§,*, Paul A. Wender†,* Vault Nanoparticles: Chemical Modifications for Imaging and Enhanced Delivery ACS Nano 2017, 11 (1), 872–881 DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.6b07440
  4. Steven M. Ryckbosch, Paul A. Wender*, Vijay S. Pande* “Molecular Dynamics Simulations Reveal Ligand-controlled Positioning of a Peripheral Protein Complex in Membranes” Nature Comm. 2017, 8, 6.
  5. Staveness, Daryl; Abdelnabi, Rana; Near, Katherine; Nakagawa, Yu; Neyts, Johan; Delang, Leen; Leyssen, Pieter; Wender, Paul “Inhibition of Chikungunya Virus-Induced Cell Death by Salicylate-Derived Bryostatin Analogs Provides Additional Evidence for a PKC-Independent Pathway” J. Nat. Products, 2016, 79 (4), 680–684 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b01017.
  6. Staveness, Daryl; Abdelnabi, Rana; Schrier, Adam; Loy, Brian; Verma, Vishal; DeChristopher, Brian; Near, Katherine; Neyts, Johan; Delang, Leen; Leyssen, Pieter; Wender, Paul “Simplified Bryostatin Analogs Protect Cells from Chikungunya Virus-Induced Cell Death” J. Nat. Products 2016 79 (4), 675– 679 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b01016.
  7. Brian A. Loy, Adam B. Lesser, Daryl Staveness, Kelvin L. Billingsley, Lynette Cegelski, Paul A. Wender* “Toward a Biorelevant Structure of Protein Kinase C Bound Allosteric Modulators: Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Labeled Bryostatin Analogs for Analysis with Solid-State REDOR NMR Spectroscopy” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137(10), 3678-3685. DOI: 10.1021/ar500434f.
  8. Wender, Paul A. “Art, Architecture and the Molecular Frontier” Acc. Chem. Res. 2015, 48, 2169−2170.
  9. Wender, Paul; Staveness, Daryl “Improved Protein Kinase C Affinity through Final Step Diversification of Simplified Salicylate-Derived Bryostatin Analog Scaffold” Organic Letters 2014 5140-5143.
  10. Wender, Paul; Nakagawa, Yu; Near, Katherine; Staveness, Daryl “Computer-Guided Design, Synthesis, and Protein Kinase C Affinity of a New Salicylate-Based Class of Bryostatin Analogs” Organic Letters 2014 5136-5139.
  11. Wender, P. A.; Donnelly, A. C,; Loy, B. A.; Near, K. E.; Staveness, D. “Rethinking the Role of Natural Products: Function-Oriented Synthesis, Bryostatin and Bryologs” in Natural Products in Medicinal Chemistry (Ed: S. Hanessian). Wiley-VCH. 2014 Ch 14, 475-544.
  12. Daniel C. Buehler, Matthew D. Marsden, Sean Shen, Daniel B. Toso, Xiaomeng Wu, Joseph A. Loo, Z.
  13. Hong Zhou, Valerie A. Kickhoefer, Paul A. Wender, Jerome A. Zack, and Leonard H. Rome “Bioengineered vaults: Self-assembling protein shell-lipophilic core nanoparticles for drug delivery” ACS Nano 2014, 8 (8), 7723–7732 DOI: 10.1021/nn5002694.
  14. Erika Geihe Stanzl, Brian M. Trantow, Jessica R. Vargas, Paul A. Wender “15 Years of Cell-Penetrating, Guanidinium-rich Molecular Transporters: Basic Science, Research Tools and Clinical Applications” Accounts 2013, 46(12), 2944-2954.
  15. Wender, Paul A; Billingsley, Kelvin L. “Lead Diversification through a Prins-Driven Macrocyclization Strategy: Application to C13 Diversified Bryostatin Analogues” Synthesis 2013, 45 (13), 1815-1824.
  16. Yasuyuki Ogawa, Phillip P. Painter, Dean J. Tantillo, and Paul A. Wender “Mechanistic and Computational Studies of Exocyclic Stereocontrol in the Synthesis of Bryostatin-like cis-2,6-Disubstituted-4-Alkylidene Tetrahydropyrans by Prins Cyclization” J. Org. Chem. 2013, 78 (1), 104-115.
  17. Elizabeth J. Beans, Dennis Fournogerakis, Carolyn Gauntlett, Lars V. Heumann, Rainer Kramer, Matthew D. Marsden, Tae-Wook Chun, Jerome A. Zack, and Paul A. Wender “Highly Potent, Synthetically Accessible Prostratin Analogs Induce Latent HIV Expression in vitro and ex vivo” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2013, 11698-11703.
  18. DeChristopher, Brian A.; Loy, Brian A.; Marsden, Matthew D.; Schrier, Adam J.; Zack, Jerome A.; Wender, Paul A. “Designed, Synthetically Accessible Bryostatin Analogues Potently Induce Activation of Latent HIV Reservoirs” Nature Chemistry 2012, 4, 705-710.
  19. Lopez-Campistrous, Ana; Song, Xiaohua; Schrier, Adam J.; Wender, Paul A.; Dower, Nancy A.; Stone, James C. “Bryostatin Analogue-Induced Apoptosis in Mantle Cell Lymphoma Cell Lines” Experimental Hematology 2012, 40 (8), 646-656.e2.
  20. Jana Blazkova, Tae-Wook Chun, Bietel W. Belay, Danielle Murray, J. Shawn Justement, Emily K. Funk, Amy Nelson, Claire W. Hallahan, Susan Moir, Paul A. Wender and Anthony S. Fauci “Effect of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors on HIV Production in Latently Infected, resting CD4+ T Cells from Infected Individuals Receiving Effective Antiretroviral Therapy” J. Infectious Diseases 2012, 206(5), 765-9.
  21. DeChristopher, Brian A.; Fan, Alice C.; Felsher, Dean W.; Wender, Paul A. “ ‘Picolog,’ a SyntheticallyAvailable Bryostatin Analog, Inhibits Growth of MYC-Induced Lymphoma In Vivo” Oncotarget 2012, 5866.
  22. Paul A. Wender and Jenny Reuber “Function Oriented Synthesis: Preparation and Initial Biological Evaluation of New A-Ring Modified Bryologs” Tetrahedron 2011, 67, 9998-10005
  23. Paul A. Wender and Adam Schrier “Total Synthesis of Bryostatin 9” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 92289231.
  24. Adam Schrier, Brian Loy, and Paul A. Wender “Translating Nature’s Library: the Bryostatins and Function-Oriented Synthesis” Israel Journal of Chemistry, Israel J. Chem. 2011, 51, 453-472.
  25. Wender, Paul A.; Jeremy L. Baryza, Stacey E. Brenner, Brian A. DeChristopher, Brian A. Loy, Adam J. Schrier, Vishal A. Verma ”Function-Oriented Synthesis: Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of Potent Bryostatin Analogs that Modulate PKC Translocation Selectivity“ Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2011, 67216726.
  26. Wender, Paul A.; Buschmann, Nicole; Cardin, Nathan B.; Jones, Lisa R.; Kan, Cindy; Kee, Jung-Min; Kowalski, John A.; Longcore, Kate E. “Gateway synthesis of daphnane congeners and their protein kinase C affinities and cell-growth activities” Nature Chemistry 2011, 3, 615-619.
  27. Shaha, S. P.; Tomic, J.; Shi, Y.; Pham, T.; Mero, P.; White, D.; He, L.; Baryza, J. L.; Wender, P. A.; Booth,
  28. W.; Spaner, D. E. “Prolonging Microtubule Dysruption Enhances the Immunogenicity of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells” Clinical & Experimental Immunology 2009, 158, 186-198.
  29. Wender, Paul A.; Miller, Benjamin L. “Synthesis at the Molecular Frontier” Nature 2009, 460, 197-201.
  30. Tapan Kumar Khan; Thomas J Nelson; Vishal A Verma; Paul A Wender; Daniel L Alkon: A Cellular Model of Alzheimer’s Disease Therapeutic Efficacy: PKC Activation Reverses A-beta induced biomarker Abnormality on Cultured Fibroblasts” Neurobiology of Disease 2009, 34(2), 332-339 Stang, Stacey L.; Lopez-Campistrous, Ana; Song, Xiaohua; Dower, Nancy A.; Blumberg, Peter M.; Wender, Paul A.; Stone, Jim “ A Pro-apoptotic Signaling Pathway involving RasGRP, Erk and Bim in B Cells” Experimental Hematology 2009, 37, 122-134.
  31. Wender, Paul; DeChristopher, Brian; Schrier, Adam “Efficient Synthetic Access to a New Family of Highly Potent Bryostatin Analogues via a Prins-Driven Macrocyclization Strategy” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 6658-6659.
  32. Wender, Paul A.; Verma, Vishal A. “The Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of C7 Diversified Bryostatin Analogs Reveals a Hot Spot for PKC Affinity” Organic Letters, 2008, 3331-3334.
  33. Paul A. Wender, Jung-Min Kee, and Jeffrey M. Warrington “Practical Synthesis of Prostratin, DPP, and Their Analogs, Adjuvant Leads Against Latent HIV” Science 2008, 649-652.
  34. Wender, Paul A.; Verma, Vishal A.; Paxton, Thomas J.; Pillow, Thomas H. “Function Oriented Synthesis, Step Economy, and Drug Design” Accts. Chem. Res. 2008, 40-49.
  35. Wender, Paul A.; Baryza, Jeremy L.; Hilinski, Michael K.; Horan, Joshua C.; Kan, Cindy; Verma, Vishal A. “Beyond Natural Products: Synthetic Analogues of Bryostatin 1” in Drug Discovery Research, Ziwei Huang Ed. 2007, 127-162
  36. Wender, Paul A.; Horan, Joshua C.; Verma, Vishal A. “Total Synthesis and Initial Biological Evaluation of New B-Ring Modified Bryostatin Analogs” Organic Letters, 2006, 8(23), 5299-5302.
  37. Wender, Paul A.; Horan, Joshua C. “The Synthesis and PKC Binding of a New Class of A-ring Diversifiable Bryostatin Analogs Utilizing a Double Asymmetric Hydrogenation and Cross-coupling Strategy” Organic Letters, 2006, 4581-4584.
  38. Paul A. Wender and Vishal A. Verma “Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of a Potent, PKC Selective, B-Ring Analog of Bryostatin” Organic Letters, 2006, 1893-1896.
  39. Wender, Paul A.; Clarke, Michael O.; Horan, Joshua C. “The Role of the A-Ring of Bryostatin Analogs in PKC Binding: Synthesis and Initial Biological Evaluation of New A-Ring Modified Bryologs” Organic Letters, 2005, 7(10), 1995-1998.
  40. Wender, Paul A.; Baryza, Jeremy L. “Identification of a Tunable Site in Bryostatin Analogs: C20 Bryologs through Late Stage Diversification” Organic Letters, 2005, 7(6), 1177-1180.
  41. Stone, James C.; Stang, Stacey L.; Zheng, Yong; Dower, Nancy A.; Brenner, Stacey E.; Baryza, Jeremy L.; Wender, Paul A. “Synthetic Bryostatin Analogues Activate the RasGRP1 Signaling Pathway” J. Med. Chem. 2004, 47, 6638-6644.
  42. Wender, Paul A.; Hilinski, Michael; Mayweg, Alexander “Late Stage Intermolecular CH Activation for Lead Diversification: A Highly Chemoselective Oxyfunctionalization of the C-9 Position of Potent Bryostatin Analogues” Organic Letters, 2005, 79-82
  43. Caitlin Hammond, Yonghong Shi, Jenny Mena, Yelena Tomic, David Cervi, Liwei He, Amanda E. Millar, Mark DeBenedette, Andre C. Schuh, Jeremy L. Baryza, Paul A. Wender, Laszlo Radvanyi, and David E.
  44. Spaner “Effect of serum and anti-oxidants on the immunogenicity of protein kinase C-activated chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells” J. Immunotherapy, 2005, 28, 28-39
  45. Jeremy L. Baryza, Stacey E. Brenner, Madeleine L. Craske, Tobias Meyer, Paul A. Wender “Simplified Analogs of Bryostatin with Anti-Cancer Activity Display Greater Potency for Translocation of PKCdeltaGFP” Chemistry & Biology 2004, 11, 1261-1267.
  46. Wender, Paul A.; Baryza, Jeremy L.; Brenner, Stacey E.; Clarke, Michael O.; Craske, Madeleine L.; Horan, Joshua C.; Meyer, Tobias “Function Oriented Synthesis: The Design, Synthesis, PKC Binding and Translocation Activity of a New Bryostatin Analogue” Current Drug Discovery Technologies 2004, 1, 111.
  47. Paul A. Wender, Michael F. T. Koehler, Martin Sendzik “A New Synthetic Approach to the C Ring of Known as well as Novel Bryostatin Analogues” Organic Letters, 2003, 5 (24), 4549-4552.
  48. Paul A. Wender,* Jeremy L. Baryza, Stacey E. Brenner, Michael O. Clarke, Gabriel G. Gamber, Joshua C. Horan, Theodore C. Jessop, Cindy Kan, Kanaka Pattabiraman, and Travis J. Williams “Inspirations from Nature: New Reactions, New Therapeutic Leads, and New Drug Delivery Systems” Pure Appl. Chem. 2003, 75, 143-156.
  49. Wender, P. A.; Mayweg, Alexander V. W.; VanDeusen, Christopher L. “A Concise, Selective Synthesis of the Polyketide Spacer Domain of a Potent Bryostatin Analog” Organic Letters, 2003, 277-279.
  50. Wender, P. A.; Baryza, J.; Bennett, C.; Bi, C.; Brenner, S. E.; Clarke, M.; Horan, J.; Kan, C.; Lacote, E.; Lippa, Nell, P.; Turner, T. “The Practical Synthesis of a Novel and Highly Potent Analog of Bryostatin” J. Am. Chem. Soc.; 2002, 124, 13648-13649.
  51. Mayumi Shindo, Kazuhiro Irie, Akifumi Nakahara, Hajime Ohigashi, Hiroaki Konishi, Ushio Kikkawa, Paul A. Wender “Toward the Identification of Selective Modulators of Protein Kinase C (PKC) Isozymes: Establishment of the Binding Assay for PKC Isozymes Using Synthetic C1 Peptide Receptors and Identification of the Critical Residues Involved in the Phorbol Ester Binding” Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 2001, 9, 2073-2081.
  52. Leon Chen, Lee R. Wright, Che-Hong Chen, Steven F. Oliver, Paul A. Wender, Daria Mochly-Rosen “Molecular Transporters for Peptides: Delivery of a Cardioprotective Epsilon PKC Agonist Peptide into Cells and Intact Ischemic Heart using an Oligoguanidine Transport System” Chemistry & Biology 2001, 8(12), 1123-1129.
  53. Tanaka, M.; Irie, K.; Nakagawa, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Ohigashi, H.; Wender, P. A. The C4 Hydroxyl Group of Phorbol Esters is not necessary for Protein Kinase C Binding Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 2001, 11, 719-722.
  54. Yu Nakagawa, Kazuhiro Irie, Hajime Ohigashi, Hideo Hayashi, Paul A. Wender “Synthesis and PKC Isozyme Surrogate Binding of Indothiolactam-V, A New Thioamide Analogue of Tumor Promoting Indolactam-V” Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 2000, 10, 2087-2090.
  55. Hiroyuki Fukuda, Kazuhiro Irie, Akifumi Nakahara, Hajime Ohigashi and Paul A. Wender, “Solid-phase Synthesis, Mass Spectrometric Analysis of the Zinc-folding, and Phorbol Ester-binding Studies of the 116mer Peptide Containing the Tandem Cysteine-rich C1 Domains of Protein Kinase C Gamma, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 1999, 7, 1213.
  56. Paul A. Wender and Blaise Lippa, “Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Bryostatin Analogues: The Role of the A-Ring,” Tetrahedron Letters, 2000, 41, 1007-1011.
  57. Paul A. Wender, Thorsten Kirschberg, Peter D. Williams, Harold M. M. Bastiaans, and Kazuhiro Irie, “A New Class of Simplified Phorbol Ester Analogs: Synthesis and Binding to PKC and h-C1B (hPKCCRD2),” Organic Letters, 1999, 1, 1009.
  58. Paul A. Wender and Kevin W. Hinkle, “Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of a New Class of Bryostatin Analogues: The Role of the C20 Substituent in Protein Kinase C. Binding,” Tetrahedron Letters, 2000, 41, 6725-6729.
  59. Paul A. Wender, Michael F. T. Koehler, D. L. Wright, and K. Irie, “Mapping Phorbol Ester Binding Domains: The Design, Synthesis and Protein Kinase C Binding Assay of Novel Phorbol Dimers,” Synthesis, SI, 1401 (1999).
  60. Paul A. Wender, Kevin W. Hinkle, Michael F. T. Koehler and Blaise Lippa, “The Rational Design of Potential Chemotherapeutic Agents: Synthesis of Bryostatin Analogues,” Medicinal Research Reviews, 19, 388 (1999).
  61. Kazuhiro Irie, Kentaro Oie, Akifumi Nakahara, Yoshiaki Yanai, Hajime Ohigashi, Hiroyuki Fukuda and Paul A. Wender, “Synthesis and Phorbol Ester Binding of the Zinc-finger Like Sequences of All Protein Kinase C Isozymes, In Peptide Science 1998, M. Kondo, Ed.: Protein Research Foundation, Osaka, 65-68 (1999).
  62. Paul A. Wender, Blaise Lippa, Cheol-Min Park, Kazuhiro Irie, Akifumi Nakahara, and Hajime Ohigashi, “Selective Binding of Bryostatin Analogues to the Cysteine Rich Domains of Protein Kinase C Isozymes,” Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 9, 1687 (1999).
  63. Hiroyuki Fukuda, Kazuhiro Irie, Akifumi Nakahara, Kentaro Oie, Hajime Ohigashi, and Paul A. Wender, “Synthesis and Binding Studies of the 116-mer Peptide Containing the Double Cystein-rich Motifs of Protein Kinase C gamma,” Tetrahedron Letters, 39, 7943, (1998).
  64. Paul A. Wender, Jef De Brabander, Patrick G. Harran, Kevin W. Hinkle, and Blaise Lippa, “Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Fully Synthetic Bryostatin Analogues, Tetrahedron Letters, 39, 8625 (1998).
  65. Paul A. Wender, Yolanda Martin-Cantalejo, Andrew J. Carpenter, Anna Chiu, Jef De Brabander, Patrick G. Harran, Juan-Miguel Jimenez, Michael F. T. Koehler, Blaise Lippa, James A. Morrison, Stephan G. Müller, Stephan N. Müller, Cheol-Min Park, Makoto Shiozaki, Carsten Siedenbiedel, Donald J. Skalitzky, Masahiro Tanaka, and Kazuhiro Irie, “The Chemistry-Medicine Continuum: Synthetic, Computer, Spectroscopic and Biological Studies on New Chemotherapeutic Leads,” Pure & Appl. Chem, 70, 539, (1998).
  66. Kazuhiro Irie, Kentaro Oie, Akifumi Nakahara, Yoshiaki Yanai, Hajime Ohigashi, Paul A. Wender, Hiroyuki Fukuda, Hiroaki Konishi and Ushio Kikkawa, “Molecular Basis for Protein Kinase C (PKC) Isozyme Selective Binding: The Synthesis, Folding, and Phorbol Ester Binding of the Cysteine-Rich C1 Domains of All PKC Isozymes, J. Am. Chem. Soc, 120, 9159 (1998).
  67. Kazuhiro Irie, Yoshiaki Yanai, Kentaro Oie, Junya Ishizawa, Yu Nakagawa, Hajime Ohihashi, Paul A. Wender and Ushio Kikkawa, “Comparison of Chemical Characteristics of the First and the Second Cysteine-Rich Domains of Protein Kinase Cg, ”Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 5, 1725 (1997).
  68. Paul A. Wender, Jef De Brabander, Patrick G. Harran, Juan-Miguel Jimenez, Michael F. T. Koehler, Blaise Lippa, Cheol-Min Park, Carsten Siedenbiedel, and George R. Pettit, “The Design, Computer Analysis, Solution Structure, and Biological Evaluation of the First Totally Synthetic Analogs of Bryostatin 1,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 95, 6624 (1998).
  69. Paul A. Wender, Jef De Brabander, Patrick G. Harran, Juan-Miguel Jimenez, Michael F. T. Koehler, Blaise Lippa, Cheol-Min Park, and Makoto Shiozaki, “Synthesis of the First Members of a New Class of Biologically Active Bryostatin Analogs,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 120, 4534 (1998).
  70. Kazuhiro Irie, Yoshiaki Yanai, Hajime Ohigashi and Paul A. Wender, “Synthesis and Characterization of Model Peptides Incorporating the Phorbol Ester-binding Domain of Protein Kinase C,” Peptide Chemistry 1996: Kitada (Ed.), Protein Research Foundation, Osaka, 209 (1997).
  71. Yoshiaki Yanai, Kazuhiro Irie, Hajime Ohigashi, and Paul A. Wender, “Synthesis and Characterization of the First Cysteine-Rich Domain of Novel Protein Kinase C,” Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 7, 117 (1997).
  72. Kazuhiro Irie, Yoshiaki Yanai, Kentaro Oie, Hajime Ohigashi, and Paul Wender, “Protein Kinase C Regulatory Domain Surrogate Peptides: Effects of Metal Ions on Folding, Phorbol Ester-binding, and Selectivity,” Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 7, 965 (1997).
  73. Kazuhiro Irie, Tomomi Isaka, Yoriko Iwata, Yoshiaki Yanai, Yoshimasa Nakamura, Fumito Koizumi, Hajime Ohigashi, Paul A. Wender, Yoshiko Satomi, Hoyoku Nishino, “Synthesis and Biological Activities of New Conformationally Restricted Analogues of (-)-Indolactam-V: Elucidation of the Biologically Active Conformation of the Tumor-Promoting Teleocidins,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 118, 10733 (1996).
  74. Kazuhiro Irie, Yoshiaki Yanai, Hajime Ohigashi, Paul A. Wender, and Benjamin L. Miller, ” Synthesis and Characterization of the Second Cysteine-Rich Region of Mouse Skin PKCh,” Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 6, 353 (1996).
  75. Kazuhiro Irie, Takashi Ishii, Hajime Ohigashi, Paul A. Wender, Benjamin L. Miller and Naohito Takeda, “Synthesis and Characterization of New Photolabile Phorbol Esters for Affinity Labeling of Protein Kinase C.,” J. Org. Chem., 61, 2164 (1996).
  76. Paul A. Wender, Kazuhiro Irie, and Benjamin L. Miller, “Identification, Activity, and Structural Studies of Peptides Incorporating the Phorbol Ester Binding Domain of Protein Kinase C,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 92, 239 (1995).
  77. Paul A. Wender, Hiroshi Kogen, Hee Yoon Lee, John D. Munger, Jr., Robert S. Wilhelm, Peter D. Williams, “Studies on Tumor Promoters. 8: The Synthesis of Phorbol, “J. Am Chem. Soc. 111, 8957 (1989).
  78. Paul A. Wender, Hee Yoon Lee, Robert S. Wilhelm, Peter Williams, “Studies on Tumor Promoters. VII: The Synthesis of a General Precursor of the Tiglianes, Daphnanes, and Ingenanes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111, 8954 (1989).
  79. Paul A. Wender, Cynthia M. Cribbs, Konrad F. Koehler, Nancy A. Sharkey, Cherry L. Herald, Yoshiake Komano, George R. Pettit, Peter M. Blumberg, “Modeling of the Bryostatins to the Phorbol Ester Pharmacophore on Protein Kinase C,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 7197 (1988).
  80. Paul A. Wender, Konrad F. Koehler, Nancy A. Sharkey, Marie L. Dell’Aquila, Peter Blumberg, “Analysis of the Phorbol Ester Pharmacophore on Protein Kinase C as a Guide to the Rational Design of New Classes of Analogs,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 4214 (1986).